Uncover and confirm the CIDP diagnosis

CONFIRMING CIDP IS CRITICAL

Review the electrodiagnostic criteria for confirming CIDP with Ken Gorson, MD, Neurology.

Watch the rest of this video and more like it in the Gamunex Hub.

WHEN CONFIRMING CIDP, STUDIES SUGGEST EVALUATING AT LEAST 3 LIMBS1

Chart showing a 20% increase in diagnostic accuracy when 3 limbs are tested

"Three-limb testing may increase diagnostic sensitivity of definite CIDP, especially in patients with atypical phenotypes." —Vo ML, et al.1

These test results could mean CIDP

Delayed or absent F waves2

Prolonged distal latency2

Slow conduction velocity2

Partial or total conduction block3

For the diagnosis and management of CIDP

  • The EFNS/PNS treatment recommendations were revised based on evidence from the ICE study—the longest study of IVIG in CIDP3,4
  • These guidelines offer diagnostic criteria that balance specificity and sensitivity, and allow identification of significantly greater numbers of patients with CIDP3,5
  • Get the EFNS/PNS guidelines
Among the diagnostic criteria for CIDP, the EFNS/PNS criteria are the most sensitive5*
AAN KOSKI EFNS/PNS
Sensitivity 45.7% 63% 81.3%
Specificity 100% 99.3% 96.2%
Symmetric or asymmetric Symmetric Symmetric Symmetric & asymmetric
Use of electrodiagnostic and clinical criteria Both Either electrodiagnostic or clinical criteria Both

Adverse reactions in CIDP study

In CIDP, the most common adverse reactions with GAMUNEX-C were headache, pyrexia, hypertension, chills, rash, nausea, arthralgia, and asthenia . The most serious adverse reaction was pulmonary embolism (PE) in 1 subject with a history of PE.


THE LONGEST STUDY FOR CIDP

The ICE study of IVIG for CIDP demonstrated the proven efficacy of GAMUNEX-C.4

EXPLORE THE FINDINGS

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GAMUNEX®-C (immune globulin injection [human], 10% caprylate/chromatography purified) is indicated for the treatment of primary humoral immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) in patients 2 years of age and older, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) in adults and children, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in adults.

Thrombosis may occur with immune globulin products, including GAMUNEX-C. Risk factors may include: advanced age, prolonged immobilization, hypercoagulable conditions, history of venous or arterial thrombosis, use of estrogens, indwelling central vascular catheters, hyperviscosity, and cardiovascular risk factors. Thrombosis may occur in the absence of known risk factors. For patients at risk of thrombosis, administer GAMUNEX-C at the minimum dose and infusion rate practicable. Ensure adequate hydration in patients before administration. Monitor for signs and symptoms of thrombosis and assess blood viscosity in patients at risk for hyperviscosity.

Renal dysfunction, acute renal failure, osmotic nephrosis, and death may occur with immune globulin intravenous (IVIG) products in predisposed patients. Patients predisposed to renal dysfunction include those with any degree of preexisting renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, age greater than 65, volume depletion, sepsis, paraproteinemia, or patients receiving known nephrotoxic drugs. Renal dysfunction and acute renal failure occur more commonly in patients receiving IVIG products containing sucrose. GAMUNEX-C does not contain sucrose. For patients at risk of renal dysfunction or failure, administer GAMUNEX-C at the minimum concentration available and the minimum infusion rate practicable.

GAMUNEX-C is contraindicated in patients who have had an anaphylactic or severe systemic reaction to the administration of human immune globulin. It is contraindicated in IgA-deficient patients with antibodies against IgA and history of hypersensitivity.

Severe hypersensitivity reactions may occur with IVIG products, including GAMUNEX-C. In case of hypersensitivity, discontinue GAMUNEX-C infusion immediately and institute appropriate treatment.

Monitor renal function, including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and urine output in patients at risk of developing acute renal failure.

Hyperproteinemia, increased serum viscosity, and hyponatremia may occur in patients receiving IVIG treatment, including GAMUNEX-C.

There have been reports of aseptic meningitis, hemolytic anemia, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema (transfusion-related acute lung injury [TRALI]) in patients administered with IVIG, including GAMUNEX-C.

The high-dose regimen (1g/kg x 1-2 days) is not recommended for individuals with expanded fluid volumes or where fluid volume may be a concern.

Because GAMUNEX-C is made from human blood, it may carry a risk of transmitting infectious agents, eg, viruses, the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) agent, and, theoretically, the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) agent.

Do not administer GAMUNEX-C subcutaneously in patients with ITP because of the risk of hematoma formation.

Periodic monitoring of renal function and urine output is particularly important in patients judged to be at increased risk of developing acute renal failure. Assess renal function, including measurement of BUN and serum creatinine, before the initial infusion of GAMUNEX-C and at appropriate intervals thereafter.

Consider baseline assessment of blood viscosity in patients at risk for hyperviscosity, including those with cryoglobulins, fasting chylomicronemia/markedly high triacylglycerols (triglycerides), or monoclonal gammopathies, because of the potentially increased risk of thrombosis.

If signs and/or symptoms of hemolysis are present after an infusion of GAMUNEX-C, perform appropriate laboratory testing for confirmation.

If TRALI is suspected, perform appropriate tests for the presence of antineutrophil antibodies and anti-HLA antibodies in both the product and patient's serum.

After infusion of IgG, the transitory rise of the various passively transferred antibodies in the patient's blood may yield positive serological testing results, with the potential for misleading interpretation.

In clinical studies, the most common adverse reactions with GAMUNEX-C were headache, pyrexia, hypertension, chills, rash, nausea, arthralgia, and asthenia (in CIDP); cough, rhinitis, pharyngitis, headache, asthma, nausea, fever, diarrhea, and sinusitis with intravenous use (in PIDD) and local infusion-site reactions, fatigue, headache, upper respiratory tract infection, arthralgia, diarrhea, nausea, sinusitis, bronchitis, depression, allergic dermatitis, migraine, myalgia, viral infection, and pyrexia with subcutaneous use (in PIDD); and headache, ecchymosis, vomiting, fever, nausea, rash, abdominal pain, back pain, and dyspepsia (in ITP).

The most serious adverse reactions in clinical studies were pulmonary embolism (PE) in 1 subject with a history of PE (in CIDP), an exacerbation of autoimmune pure red cell aplasia in 1 subject (in PIDD), and myocarditis in 1 subject that occurred 50 days post-study drug infusion and was not considered drug related (in ITP).

Please see accompanying full Prescribing Information for GAMUNEX-C.

Terms to know

IG=immune globulin, CIDP=chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, PIDD=primary immunodeficiency disease, ITP=idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, IV=intravenous.

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REFERENCES

  1. Vo ML, Hanineva A, Chin RL, Carey BT, Latov N, Langsdorf JA. Comparison of 2-limb versus 3-limb electrodiagnostic studies in the evaluation of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Muscle Nerve. 2015;51(4):549-553.
  2. Lotan I, Hellman MA, Steiner I. Diagnostic criteria of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in diabetes mellitus. Acta Neurol Scand. 2015;132(4):278-283.
  3. Joint Task Force of the EFNS and the PNS. European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society Guideline on Management of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy: report of a joint task force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies and the Peripheral Nerve Society – first revision. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2010;15(3):1-9.
  4. Hughes RAC, Donofrio P, Bril V, et al; on behalf of the ICE Study Group. Intravenous immune globulin (10% caprylate-chromatography purified) for the treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (ICE study): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(2):136-144.
  5. Rajabally YA, Nicolas G, Piéret F, Bouche P, Van den Bergh PY. Validity of diagnostic criteria for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a multicentre European study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2009;80(12):1364-1368.